India is a country that is rich in culture and history. One of the most important aspects of India’s history is the struggle for freedom. This fight began with the British colonization of India and continued until India finally became an independent nation in 1947. Many freedom fighters dedicated their lives to this cause, and we would like to honor them by compiling a comprehensive list of their names. This blog post will discuss the life and work of some of the most famous freedom fighters in Indian history!
Freedom Fighters of India
1. Mahatma Gandhi
Full Name: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
Born: 2 October 1869, Porbandar
Died: 30 January 1948, New Delhi
Mahatma Gandhi is an icon of the Indian independence movement. His father, who was a wealthy businessman, wanted his son to follow in his footsteps. Instead, Gandhi decided to pursue a career in law.
He spent much of his time studying the Vedas and the Gita. When he was 17 years old, Gandhi became involved with the Indian National Congress, a political party trying to achieve independence for India. He soon rose to become one of the organization’s leaders, and he led many peaceful protests against British rule.
In 1915, Gandhi began to call for nonviolent resistance to British rule. He was arrested in 1920 and sentenced to five years in prison. After his release, he continued his campaign for Indian independence.
Gandhi is best known for his philosophy of non-violent resistance. He was born in 1869 and led the Indian independence movement against British colonialism. After years of peaceful protests and civil disobedience, Gandhi helped lead India to independence in 1947. He is also celebrated for promoting human rights and racial equality.
2. Jawaharlal Nehru
Parents: Motilal Nehru
Born: 14 November 1889, Prayagraj
Died: 27 May 1964, New Delhi
Nehru was born in 1889 and became one of the leading figures in the Indian independence movement. He served as the first Prime Minister of India after achieving independence in 1947. Nehru is also known for his work in modernizing India and promoting socialism and secularism.
3. Subhas Chandra Bose
Full Name: Subhas Chandra Bose
Born: 23 January 1897, Cuttack
Died: 18 August 1945, Taipei
Bose was born in 1897 and became one of the most influential leaders of the Indian independence movement. He advocated for using violent methods to achieve independence.
Subhas Chandra Bose was a freedom fighter who believed in the use of violence to achieve independence from British rule. He was born in 1897 and became involved in the independence movement at a young age.
Bose was exiled from India for his beliefs, but he continued to work for the cause from abroad. He eventually returned to India and formed the Indian National Army to fight against the British. Bose died in 1945, but his legacy continues in the freedom fighters who continue his work.
4. Bhagat Singh
Full Name: Bhagat Singh
Born: 27 September 1907, Banga
Died: 23 March 1931, Lahore
Bhagat Singh was a freedom fighter who advocated for the use of violence to achieve independence. He was born in 1907 and became involved in the independence movement at a young age.
Singh was exiled from India for his beliefs, but he continued to work for the cause from abroad. He eventually returned to India and formed the Indian National Army to fight against the British. Singh died in 1931, but his legacy continues in the freedom fighters who continue his work.
5. Chandrashekhar Azad
Full Name: Chandrashekhar Tiwari
Born: 23 July 1906, Bhabua
Died: 27 February 1931, Allahabad
Chandrashekhar Azad was one of the most iconic freedom fighters of India. He was born into a family of Brahmin Landlords in Uttar Pradesh. From a young age, he was inspired by the stories of revolutionaries such as Bhagat Singh and Shyamji Krishna Verma. In 1926, he joined the Hindustan Republican Association, a secret society that worked towards overthrowing the British Raj.
He quickly rose through the ranks and became one of the organization’s most skilled leaders. In 1931, he was arrested for his involvement in revolutionary activities. While in prison, he vowed to never be caught alive by the British and changed his name to Azad, meaning “free.”
In February of 1931, he was involved in a shootout with the police and was killed. His death inspired many freedom fighters to continue his work.
6. Lal Bahadur Shastri
Full Name: Lal Bahadur Shrivastava
Born: 02 October 1904, Mughalsarai
Died: 11 January 1966, Tashkent
Lal Bahadur Shastri was the Prime Minister of India from 1964-to 1966. He was born in 1904 in Uttar Pradesh. He joined the freedom movement at a young age and was arrested several times for his involvement. In 1942, he was one of the leaders of the Quit India Movement.
After independence, he served in various government roles before becoming Prime Minister. He is best remembered for his work in promoting the Green Revolution and his slogan of “Jai Jawan Jai Kisan.” Shastri died in 1966 while on a state visit to Tashkent. His death was a significant loss to the nation and freedom fighters worldwide.
Full Name: Sukhdev Thapar
Born: 15 May 1907, Ludhiana
Died: 23 March 1931, Lahore
Sukhdev Thapar was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian independence movement. Born into a wealthy family, he was educated in England and became a journalist after returning to India. However, Thapar soon became involved in politics, and he quickly rose through the ranks of the Indian National Congress.
He played a key role in organizing the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-1922. He was one of the main leaders of the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930-1931.
Thapar was arrested on multiple occasions, but he never wavered in his commitment to Indian independence. He was hanged by the British in 1931, becoming one of the first martyrs of the struggle for freedom. Today, Thapar is remembered as one of the most important freedom fighters in Indian history.
8. Dr. B R Ambedkar
Full Name: Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar
Born: 14 April 1891, Mhow
Died: 06 December 1956, Delhi
Dr. B R Ambedkar was one of India’s most important freedom fighters. He was born into a low caste family, and he faced discrimination throughout his life. Despite this, he excelled in his studies and became one of the first people from his community to attend college. He went on to study law in England, and he returned to India to practice as a lawyer.
Ambedkar quickly rose to prominence as a leader of the Dalit community. He worked tirelessly for the rights of Dalits, and he played a key role in the drafting of the Indian Constitution.
Ambedkar was also a vocal critic of the caste system, and he worked to promote equality for all Indians. He passed away in 1956, but his legacy continues in the work of freedom fighters all over India.
9. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Full Name: Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel
Born: 31 October 1875, Nadiad
Died: 15 December 1950, Mumbai
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel was an Indian independence activist and one of the founding fathers of the Republic of India. He was the first Deputy Prime Minister of India and is also credited with the unification of numerous princely states to form India’s single, giant Union.
Sardar Patel is widely revered in India as the “Iron Man of India” for his political acumen and tireless work unifying the country. Born into a family of farmers in what is now Gujarat state,
Patel undertook law studies in England before returning to India. He joined the Indian National Congress and was elected to various provincial legislatures before becoming the party leader in his home state.
As the political situation in India deteriorated in the mid-1940s, Patel advocated non-violent protests and political unity among the factions of the independence movement. After independence was achieved in 1947, he was persuaded by Jawaharlal Nehru to accept the role of Deputy Prime Minister, which he held until his death in 1950.
10. Mangal Pandey
Full Name: Mangal Pandey
Born: 19 July 1827, Uttar Pradesh
Died: 08 April 1857, Barrackpore
One of India’s most celebrated freedom fighters, Mangal Pandey, was an important figure in the country’s struggle for independence from British rule. Born in Uttar Pradesh in 1827,
Pandey joined the British East India Company’s military forces in 1849. He quickly rose through the ranks, and by 1857 he had been promoted to the position of havildar major or sergeant major. However, Pandey became increasingly disillusioned with British rule, and he began to voice his dissatisfaction with the authorities.
On 29 March 1857, he openly defied a British officer‘s orders to strip and prepare for flogging. Pandey fired his musket at them when other soldiers attempted to intervene, killing two and wounding several others.
11. Ram Prasad Bismil
Full Name: Ram Prasad Bismil
Born: 11 June 1897, Shahjahanpur
Died: 19 December 1927, Gorakhpur
Ram Prasad Bismil, an Indian revolutionary who was active in the struggle for independence from British rule, was born on 11 July 1897 in the Shahjahanpur district of Uttar Pradesh. His father was a government employee, and his mother was a homemaker.
He was educated at Muir Central College, Allahabad, and graduated with a degree in English literature. During his time at college, he became interested in the nationalist movement. He came into contact with Chandra Shekhar Azad, another revolutionary.
In 1920, he participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement, and in 1921, he joined the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA). The HRA was a group that advocated armed revolution to achieve independence.
In December 1927, Bismil was arrested for his involvement in the murder of a British police officer. He was tried and sentenced to death, and he was hanged on 19 December 1927.
12. Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Full Name: Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Born: 23 July 1856, Ratnagiri
Died: 01 August 1920, Mumbai
Born into a family of Brahmins in 1856, Bal Gangadhar Tilak was one of the most prominent and influential leaders of the Indian independence movement. A scholar of Sanskrit and Hinduism, Tilak rejected the orthodox stance of his caste and instead advocated for a more progressive and inclusive form of Hinduism.
He also saw the need for Indians to unite against British colonial rule and was a powerful voice in the fight for independence. In 1885, he co-founded the nationalist newspaper ‘The Mahratta’ and later helped to establish the Indian National Congress.
Though he spent several years in prison for his political activities, Tilak never wavered in his commitment to India’s independence. He is remembered as one of the great freedom fighters of India.
13. Khudiram Bose
Full Name: Khudiram Bose
Born: 03 December 1889, Midnapore
Died: 11 August 1908, Muzaffarpur
Khudiram Bose was born in the town of Habibpur in the state of West Bengal, India, in 1858. His father was a schoolteacher, and his mother was a homemaker. When he was just eight years old, his father died, and his family fell into poverty.
Despite this, Khudiram was an excellent student, and he won a scholarship to attend high school. After graduating from high school, he enrolled at Vidyasagar College in Kolkata. There, he became involved in the fight for Indian independence from British rule.
In 1906, Khudiram and another nationalist named Prafulla Chaki attempted to assassinate a British judge named Douglas Kingsford. The plot failed, and Khudiram was arrested. He was sentenced to death and hanged in 1908.
Women Freedom Fighters of India
Women freedom fighters of India have always been an inspiration to the country. They have fought for the freedom of India from British rule. They have also worked towards the upliftment of society.
Here is a list of some of India’s most prominent women freedom fighters.
14. Rani Laxmi Bai
Full Name: Laxmibai
Born: 19 November 1828, Uttar Pradesh
Died: 18 June 1858, Gwalior
Spouse: Gangadhar Rao
Occupation: Rani of Jhansi, freedom fighter
Achievements: One of the leading figures of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, she became a symbol of resistance to British colonialism in India.
Rani Laxmi Bai was one of India’s most influential women freedom fighters. Born into a noble family in Uttar Pradesh, she was married to the Maharaja of Jhansi at a young age.
As Queen of Jhansi, she was a skilled military leader. She played an important role in the 1857 Rebellion against British rule. After her husband’s death, she led her forces into battle against the British. Still, she was eventually defeated and killed in combat.
Although she ultimately failed in her quest to free India from British rule, Rani Laxmi Bai inspired many Indians with her courage and determination. Her story continues to be an inspiration for women all over India.
15. Sarojini Naidu
Full Name: Sarojini Chattopadhyay
Born: 13 February 1879, Hyderabad
Died: 02 March 1949, Lucknow
Spouse: Govindarajulu Naidu
Occupation: Politician, freedom fighter, poet
Achievements: First woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress and the Governor of Uttar Pradesh.
Sarojini Naidu, one of India’s most important women freedom fighters, was born into a wealthy family in Hyderabad. Sarojini was highly educated, and she became involved in the Indian independence movement at a young age.
She quickly rose to prominence as a powerful speaker and leader. She played a vital role in the civil disobedience movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. After Indian independence was achieved,
Sarojini Naidu served as the governor of Uttar Pradesh, making her the first woman to hold such a position in India. She remained an important champion of women’s rights throughout her life, and her legacy continues to inspire Indian women today.
16. Annie Besant
Full Name: Annie Wood Besant
Born: 01 October 1847, London
Died: 20 September 1933, Adyar, Madras, (Chennai)
Spouse: Frank Besant
Occupation: Theosophist, women’s rights activist, writer, orator, educator, and freedom fighter
Achievements: Annie Besant was the first woman to be elected as the President of the Indian National Congress.
Annie Besant was a British women’s rights activist and one of the most prominent figures in the early women’s suffrage movement. In India, she fought for women’s right to education and property ownership.
She also helped to establish the Home Rule League, which campaigned for India’s independence from British rule. Following the outbreak of World War I, Besant turned her attention to promoting Indian nationalism. She was arrested and jailed several times for her political activities.
Still, she continued to fight for India’s independence until her death in 1933. Annie Besant was an extraordinary woman who dedicated her life to fighting for the rights of others. Her legacy continues to inspire people worldwide who are working for social justice.
17. Begum Hazrat Mahal
Full Name: Hazrat Mahal
Born: 1820, Faizabad
Died: 07 April 1879, Nepal
Spouse: Nawab Wajid Ali Shah
Achievements: Begum Hazrat Mahal was one of the most important leaders of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. She was the wife of the last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, and she took up arms against the British after he was exiled.
Begum Hazrat Mahal was one of the most prominent freedom fighters of India. She was the wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh. When the British annexed Awadh in 1856, Begum Hazrat Mahal led a revolt against them. She successfully drove the British out of Awadh and proclaimed herself the ruler of the state.
However, her rule was short-lived as the British recaptured Awadh a few months later. Despite her defeat, Begum Hazrat Mahal is remembered as a brave and determined leader who fought for India’s independence.
18. Lakshmi Sahgal
Full Name: Lakshmi Swaminathan
Born: 24 October 1914, Madras
Died: 23 July 2012, Kanpur
Spouse: Subhas Bose
Political party: Forward Bloc
Achievements: Commander-in-chief of the women’s wing of the Indian National Army
Lakshmi Sahgal was one of the most prominent women freedom fighters of India. Born into a wealthy family in Madras, she studied medicine and became a doctor. However, her life took a radical turn when she joined the Indian National Army (INA) during World War II.
Sahgal served as a medical officer in the INA. She quickly rose through the ranks to become one of its most respected leaders. After the war, she returned to India. She continued her work for independence, eventually becoming a member of the Communist Party of India. In later years,
Sahgal remained an active voice for social justice, speaking out against communal violence and working for women’s empowerment. She was widely respected for her courage and commitment to her beliefs, and she was an inspiration to many.
19. Aruna Asaf Ali
Full Name: Aruna Ganguli
Born: 16 July 1909, Kolkata
Died: 29 July 1996, New Delhi
Spouse: Asaf Ali
Political party: Communist Party of India
Achievements: The first woman to be arrested in the Quit India Movement
Aruna Asaf Ali was an Indian freedom fighter and political leader. She was born into a wealthy family in Kolkata, but she chose to dedicate her life to the cause of India’s independence. Ali was arrested several times for her involvement in the independence movement, but she continued to fight for India’s freedom.
She was a leading voice in the Quit India Movement. She played a vital role in the negotiations that led to Indian independence. After independence, Ali served as a member of the Constituent Assembly and later as governor of Delhi. She remained an active champion of democracy and social justice throughout her life.
20. Sucheta Kriplani
Full Name: Sucheta Mazumdar Kriplani
Born: 25 June 1908, Ambala
Died: 01 December 1974, New Delhi
Spouse: Acharya Kriplani
Political party: Communist Party of India
- Member of the Constituent Assembly of India
- First woman Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh
Sucheta Kriplani was one of the most important women freedom fighters of India. Born into a family of freedom fighters, she became involved in the independence movement at a young age.
Kriplani studied politics and economics at university, and she became a student movement leader. After graduation, she joined the Indian National Congress. She quickly rose through the ranks to become one of its most respected leaders.
Kriplani played a key role in the Quit India movement and was jailed several times for her political activities. After India achieved independence, she served as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, becoming the first woman to hold India’s position. Throughout her life, Kriplani remained committed to her beliefs. She is remembered as an inspirational leader of the Indian freedom movement.
21. Savitribai Phule
Full Name: Savitribai Jyotirao Phule
Born: 03 January 1831, Naigaon
Died: 09 March 1897, Puneh
Spouse: Mahatma Jyotirao Phule
Occupation: Social reformer, teacher, freedom fighter
Achievements: First woman teacher of India, worked towards the eradication of the caste system and child marriage
Savitribai Phule was one of the first freedom fighters of India who fought for the education of women and the oppressed castes. She is also known as the first woman teacher of India.
Savitribai Phule was born on 03 January 1831 in Naigaon, a village in Satara district (now in Maharashtra). Her father, Khandoji Nevase Patil, was a farmer, while her mother, Lakshmi bai, was a homemaker. Savitribai was married off at the age of nine to Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, who was thirteen years old at that time.
Jyotirao Phule was himself an ardent social reformer and freedom fighter. He worked towards the eradication of the caste system and child marriage. He also opened up schools for the education of women and the oppressed castes. Through Jyotirao Phule, Savitribai became aware of the plight of the oppressed classes in India. Inspired by her husband’s work, Savitribai decided to join him in his mission.
22. Kalpana Dutt
Full Name: Kalpana Chakrabarty Dutt
Born: 15 August 1911, Barisal
Died: 29 July 2002, Kolkata
Spouse: Pramatha Nath Dutt
Achievements: Worked towards the emancipation of women, helped in relief efforts during the Bengal famine of 1943
Kalpana Dutt was born in Calcutta in 1923, the daughter of a wealthy and progressive family. She was educated at elite schools and universities, both in India and abroad. Despite her privileged background, Kalpana became a committed socialist and joined the struggle for India’s independence from British rule.
She also became an active leader in the women’s rights movement. Kalpana was arrested several times during the independence struggle for her participation in anti-colonial protests and for her support of rebel leaders such as Subhas Chandra Bose.
After India gained independence in 1947, she continued to work for social change, advocating for the rights of women, laborers, and Dalits (untouchables). In later years
23. Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit
Full Name: Vijaya Lakshmi Nehru
Born: 18 August 1900, Allahabad
Died: 01 February 1990, New Delhi
Spouse: Ranjit Sitaram Pandit
Occupation: Freedom fighter, diplomat
Achievements: First woman President of the United Nations General Assembly, first Indian woman to hold a cabinet post in pre-independence India
Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit was an Indian diplomat and politician who played an active role in the country’s independence movement. Born into a prominent family, she was educated in England and Germany before returning to India.
She quickly became involved in the fight for independence, serving as a congress leader and campaigning for Indian rights. In 1946, she was appointed as India’s first ambassador to the Soviet Union. She later served as the country’s representative to the United Nations.
Throughout her career, Pandit was a passionate advocate for women’s rights and equality, and she worked tirelessly to improve the lives of women in India. Her legacy continues to inspire women across the country to fight for their rights and speak out against injustice.
24. Durgawati Devi
Full Name: Durgawati Devi
Born: 1892, Bihar
Died: 1938, Muzaffarpur
Spouse: Rajendra Prasad
Occupation: Freedom fighter, social worker
Achievements: Worked towards the emancipation of women, helped in relief efforts during Bihar floods of 1934
Durgawati Devi was born into a poor family in the village of Barasat, West Bengal. From an early age, she was aware of the discrimination and injustice faced by women in India. This motivated her to join the Indian freedom movement.
During the Quit India Movement of 1942, she was arrested and jailed for her involvement in anti-British activities. After her release, she continued to work for the cause of Indian independence. In 1947, she became one of the first women to be elected to the Constituent Assembly of India.
After India achieved independence, she devoted her life to working for the upliftment of women and marginalized communities. She was an inspirational leader who fought for justice and equality throughout her life.
25. Jhansi Ki Rani
Full Name: Manikarnika Tambe
Born: 19 November 1828, Uttar Pradesh
Died: 17 June 1858, Gwalior
Spouse: Gangadhar Rao Newalkar
Occupation: Freedom fighter, queen
Achievements: Led the rebel forces against the British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, one of the few women to be hailed as a Rani (queen)
At the young age of 21, Manikarnika Tambe was widowed and left to fend for herself in a hostile world. Yet, she refused to give up, instead choosing to become one of India’s most celebrated freedom fighters. Better known as Jhansi Ki Rani,
Manikarnika Tambe led her people into battle against the British colonial forces, becoming a symbol of hope for those fighting for independence. While her rebellion was ultimately unsuccessful, Tambe’s courage and determination inspired future generations of Indians to continue the fight for freedom. Today, she is remembered as one of the bravest women in Indian history.
These are only a few of the many freedom fighters who have fought for India’s independence throughout history. These men and women have dedicated their lives to the cause, and they continue to inspire others to fight for what they believe in. We owe them a debt of gratitude that can never be repaid.